Ebola Virus Disease
- Ebola virus disease (EVD or Ebola) is an uncommon but deadly sickness that affects people. It is frequently lethal.
- Humans become infected with Ebola by contact with the following:
- Infected animals when preparing, cooking, or eating them body fluids of an infected person such as saliva, urine, feces, or semen\sthings that have
- The body fluids of an infected person such as garments or sheets.
- Ebola enters the body through skin incisions or by contacting the eyes, nose, or mouth.
- Fever, tiredness, and headache are common early symptoms.
- Certain kinds of Ebola can be avoided and treated with vaccinations and medications.
- The earliest epidemics of Ebola occurred in 1976, in what is now Nzara, South Sudan, and Yambuku, Democratic Republic of the Congo.
- The latter happened in a community near the Ebola River, which gave rise to the disease’s name.
- Filoviridae viruses are divided into three genera: Cuevavirus, Marburgvirus, and Ebolavirus. Six species of Ebolavirus have been identified: Zaire, Bundibugyo, Sudan, Ta Forest, Reston, and Bombali.
Fruit bats of the Pteropodidae family are hypothesized to be natural Ebola, virus hosts. Close contact with the blood, secretions, organs, or other body fluids of infected animals such as fruit bats, chimps, gorillas, monkeys, forest antelope, or porcupines discovered unwell or dead introduces Ebola into the human population.
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Ebola then spreads from person to person by direct touch (through damaged skin or mucous membranes) with:
- blood or bodily fluids of an Ebola patient or person who has died from Ebola; and things contaminated with body fluids (such as blood, faeces, or vomit) from an Ebola patient or person who died from Ebola.
- In treating patients with suspected or proven Ebola, healthcare personnel have regularly become infected. Close contact with patients happens when infection control protocols are not carefully followed.
- Funeral procedures that entail physical touch with the deceased’s body can potentially contribute to the spread of Ebola.
- Humans are contagious for as long as the virus is present in their blood. During recovery, there is a risk of sexual transmission, which can be decreased by providing survivors with care and information.
- Pregnant women who contract Ebola and recover may still contain the virus in their breastmilk or pregnancy-related fluids and tissues.
Further information can be found in the Ebola pregnancy and breastfeeding recommendations.
The Ebola virus sickness is a critical element.
- Vaccines designed to protect against some strains of Ebola have been used to restrict the spread of the disease in outbreaks. Additional vaccinations are in the works.
- Early supportive care, including rehydration and symptom management, improves survival.
- The World Health Organization has issued strong recommendations for the use of two monoclonal antibody therapies in the treatment of Ebola: mAb114 (Ansuvimab; Ebanga) and REGN-EB3 (Inmazeb).
- The typical fatality rate for Ebola cases is roughly 50%. In previous epidemics, case fatality rates ranged from 25-90%, depending on the conditions and reaction.
- Several sorts of interventions are required for effective outbreak management, including patient care, infection prevention and control, disease surveillance and contact tracing, competent laboratory services, safe and respectful funerals, and societal mobilisation.
- The involvement of the community is critical to the successful containment of epidemics.
Ebola symptoms can be severe and include fever, lethargy, muscular pain, headache, and sore throat. Then there’s vomiting, diarrhoea, a rash, and internal and external bleeding.
The interval between becoming infected and experiencing symptoms ranges between 2 and 21 days. Once a person has Ebola, they can only spread the illness. Individuals may spread Ebola for as long as the virus is present in their bodies, even after they have died.
Some people may have symptoms for two years or more after recovering from Ebola. Among these signs are:
- tiredness headache
- joint and muscle aches
- eye discomfort and vision issues
- gaining weight
- stomach ache and loss of appetite
- Hair loss and skin issues
- Sleeping difficulties Memory loss
- hearing impairment
- Anxiety and sadness.
Individuals should seek medical attention if they exhibit any of the following symptoms:
Symptoms and have been in an Ebola-infected region or had contact with someone who may have had Ebola.
Clinically, distinguishing the Ebola virus illness from other infectious diseases such as malaria, typhoid fever, and meningitis can be challenging. Several pregnancy symptoms and Ebola illness symptoms are quite similar. Pregnant women should preferably be tested quickly if Ebola is suspected because to the hazards to the pregnancy and to themselves.
The following diagnostic procedures are used to confirm that symptoms are caused by Ebola virus infection:
- Assay for antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA)
- Tests for antigen capture
- neutralization test for serum
- Cell culture virus isolation using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test.
- Diagnostic tests that have been examined as part of the WHO emergency use evaluation and listing procedure may be found here.
- Individuals who exhibit Ebola symptoms should seek medical attention right once. Early treatment increases a person’s chances of survival from Ebola.
- Therapy involves intravenous or oral fluids and medications administered by the hospital.
- It is not safe to care for Ebola patients at home since the patient may infect others. They will not receive the same degree of care at home that they would receive from experts.
- The Zaire strain of Ebola, which is predominantly prevalent in Guinea and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, has an effective vaccine. Antibodies are used to treat it. These antibody medications are administered intravenously and improve the odds of survival.
- Several kinds of Ebola are being researched for vaccines and therapies.
Supportive therapy for all kinds of Ebola saves lives and includes the following:
Fluids administered orally or intravenously
blood transfusions medications to treat any additional illnesses the patient may have, such as malaria, drugs for pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.
WHO provides guidelines that detail the optimal supportive treatment Ebola patients should get, from administering pertinent tests to treating pain, nutrition, and co-infections (such as malaria), among other measures that place the patient on the best route to recovery.
During the 2018-2020 Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the first-ever multi-drug randomized control trial was carried out to assess the efficacy and safety of medications used in Ebola therapy. The World Health Organization provides ongoing advice on preferred treatments and practices.
Control and Prevention
Individuals can protect themselves against Ebola by doing the following:
- Hand washing
- Avoiding contact with persons who have or may have Ebola, not handling the remains of people who have died from Ebola
- Receiving the Ebola vaccination if they are at risk for the Zaire strain of Ebola.
- The Ervebo vaccine has been demonstrated to be effective in protecting people from the species Zaire ebolavirus and is recommended as part of a larger set of Ebola epidemic response strategies by the Strategic Advisory Committee of Experts on Immunization.
The WHO has approved the Ebola vaccine for use in high-risk nations.
Case management, monitoring, contact tracing, a strong laboratory service, safe burials, and social mobilization are all important components of effective epidemic control. The involvement of the community is critical to the successful containment of epidemics. Increasing public knowledge of Ebola risk factors and preventative actions (including vaccination) that individuals may take is an effective method to limit human transmission. Many variables should be emphasized in risk reduction messaging:
Lowering the Risk of wildlife-to-human transfer
Containment measures, such as the safe and respectful burial of the dead, reduce the danger of sexual transmission.
Lowering the risk of transmission from pregnancy-related fluids and tissue.
When caring for patients, healthcare providers should always take conventional precautions, regardless of their supposed illness. Basic hand hygiene, respiratory hygiene, the use of personal protective equipment (to prevent splashes or another contact with infectious materials), safe injection methods, and safe burial practices are examples of these.
Healthcare personnel caring for patients infected with the Ebola virus should take extra infection-control precautions to avoid contact with the patient’s blood and bodily fluids, as well as contaminated surfaces or materials such as clothes and bedding.
Workers in laboratories are also in danger. Human and animal samples collected for the examination of Ebola infection should be handled by competent personnel and processed in well-equipped labs.
WHO has issued extensive recommendations for Ebola infection prevention and control:
Infection prevention and control recommendations for patients with suspected or confirmed Filovirus hemorrhagic fever in healthcare settings, with particular emphasis on Ebola.
The WHO’s answer
WHO collaborates with governments to avoid Ebola outbreaks by maintaining Ebola virus disease surveillance and assisting at-risk countries in developing preparation plans. This article gives broad recommendations for Ebola and Marburg virus epidemic control:
- Preparedness, alert, control, and evaluation for the Ebola and Marburg virus disease outbreaks
- When an epidemic is discovered, WHO supports community involvement, illness detection, contact tracing, immunization, case management,
- laboratory services, infection control, logistics, and training, and helps with safe and respectful burial practices.
For handling Ebola epidemics, the WHO offers the following guidelines and guidance:
- Disease outbreaks and clinical management
- Vaccine standardization – health product policy and standards
- Ebola medical devices Sexual and Reproductive Health and Research (SRH) and Ebola